Sunday, December 07, 2008

High School Response to Intervention (RTI) Resources

Most of the workshops I've attended about RTI have focused on resources and strategies designed for the elementary school level. More resources are now available that are appropriate for the high school level than before, and I thought I'd devote a few posts on this topic.

This is especially important when we consider that high school students who receive special education services, the most intensive level of support and intervention offered in our public schools, continue to have a much higher drop-out rate than their peers.

In today's economy, we know that these students aren't dropping out of school to work at steady, well-paying job!

Here are a few links to articles related to this topic, along with references:

RTI Gets Promoted to Secondary Schools (National Center for Learning Disabilities; Barbara J.Ehren, Ed.D. & Kathleen Whitmire, Ph.D.)

"While it is urgent to intervene as early as possible in the early grades to prevent the cycle of failure, it is equally important to remember that struggling learners in middle school and high school are also in need of instructional and behavioral supports to be successful. In fact, the stakes are higher for secondary students who lack the foundational skills and strategies needed to engage in school and who end up at risk for failing or dropping out."

RTI in Secondary School Setting: Riverbank High School Story - Implementing the Content Literacy Continuum(pdf)
Ken GEisick, Ed.D.; Peggy Graving-Reyes, & Silvia DeRuvo

What is the Content Learning Continuum?
(Strategic Learning Center)

Dropout Fact Sheet (National High School Center)

RTI Action Network High School Resources

References from the RTI Action Network:

Ehren, B. J., Lenz, B. K., & Deshler, D. D. (2004). Enhancing literacy proficiency in adolescents and young adults. In A. Stone, E. Silliman, B. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy (pp. 600–625). New York: Guilford Press.

Guthrie, J. T., & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M. Kamil, R. Barr, P. Mosenthal, & D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Volume III (pp. 403–424). New York: Longman.

Hock, M. F., Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (2005). Enhancing student motivation through the pursuit of possible selves. In C. Dunkel & J. Kerpelman (Eds.), Possible selves: Theory, research and applications (pp. 205–221). Hauppauge, NY: Nova.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, Pub. L. No. 108-446, § 1400 et seq.
Moje, E. B. (2006). Motivating texts, motivating contexts, motivating adolescents: An examination of the role of motivation in adolescent literacy practices and development. Perspectives, 32(3), 10–14.

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2006). A parent's guide to response to intervention. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from

O'Connor, R., & Bell, K. (2004). Teaching students with reading disability to read words. In A. Stone, E. Silliman, B. Ehren, & K. Apel (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy (pp. 481–498). New York: Guilford Press.

Pajares, F., & Urdan, T. (2005). Academic motivation of adolescents. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Scammacca, N., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Edmonds, M., Wexler, J., Reutebuch, C. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Interventions for adolescent struggling readers: A meta-analysis with implications for practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.

Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1992). Validation of learning strategy interventions for students with LD: Results of a programmatic research effort. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.), Contemporary research with students with learning disabilities: An international perspective (pp. 22–46). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Vaughn, S., Klingner, J. K., & Bryant, D. P. (2001). Collaborative strategic reading as a means to enhance peer-mediated instruction for reading comprehension and content area learning. Remedial and Special Education, 22(2), 66–74.

Here are additional resources about RTI and special needs students. from a post on the CEC RTI blog, written by Douch Cheney, of the University of Washington:


Crone, D.A., Horner, R.H., & Hawken, L.S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in the schools: The behavior education program. NY: Guilford.

Hawken, L.S. (2006). School psychologists as leaders in the implementation of a targeted intervention: The behavior education program. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 91-111.

Ryan, J., Pierce, C. & Mooney, P. (2008). Evidence-based teaching strategies for students with EBD. Beyond Behavior, 17(3), 22-29.

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., Evelo, D. L., & Hurley, C. M. (1998). Dropout prevention for high-risk youth with disabilities: Efficacy of a sustained school engagement procedure. Exceptional Children, 65 (1), 7-21.

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., & Thurlow, M. (2005). Promoting school completion of urban secondary youth with emotional or behavioral disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71, 465-482.


From the Strategic Learning Center: The Content Literacy Continuum


Rebecca said...

Thanks for this! It is nice to see attention toward our secondary students with RtI.

Lynn Marentette said...

I'll be posting more info regarding secondary students soon.