Monday, April 05, 2010

TPACK Framework: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Assistive Technology, and Universal Design for Learning

Note:  This did not format properly on my last post.  This is a discussion about assistive technology and 21st Century Schools, and is important information for educators, special educators, school psychologists, speech and language therapist, or anyone else who works with at-risk students and technology in the schools.

TPACK and ASSISITIVE TECHNOLOGY (TPACK Information and links are provided after this discussion

Marino, Sameshima, and Beecher, from Washington State University, have looked at a newer model of educational technology, TPACK (Technology Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge) and extended it to assistive technology.  In my opinion, there needs to be more of an interrelationship between AT and TCPK in diagram 2.

1) TPACK   Framework              2) TPACK Framework Applied to Assistive Technology

TPCK diagram

Marino, M. T., Sameshima, P., & Beecher, C. C. (2009). Enhancing TPACK with assistive technology: Promoting inclusive practices in preservice teacher education. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education,9(2). Retrieved from

Abstract: "As the global community continues the transition from an industrialized factory model to an information and now participatory networked-based society, educational technology will play a pivotal role in preparing students for their futures. Many teacher preparation programs are failing to provide preservice teachers with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to adopt and utilize technology effectively. This paper presents an enhanced technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) model that adds assistive technology as a means to promote inclusive educational practice for preservice teachers. This model offers substantive promise for improving learning outcomes for students with disabilities and other traditionally marginalized populations who receive the majority of their classroom instruction in general education settings. This paper extends the TPACK model by providing specific examples of how assistive technology and
instructional technology are distinct yet overlapping constructs. Essential technology skills for preservice teachers and strategies supporting inclusive educational practice are identified."

Parette, H.P., Smith, S., Gray, T., Silver-Pacuilla, H. : The State of Assistive Technology: The Outcomes Summit. (pdf)

ISTE.CommunityNing Discussion, Special Education Technology SIG:

The model I've had in my head is a mix of TPACK and the 3-tiered model, described by David Edyburn:

David L.  Edyburn.  Response to Intervention (RTI) Is There a Role for Assistive Technology? (pdf) Special Education Technology Practice   Jan/Feb 2009 15-19.
Response to Intervention (RTI) Is there a Role for Assistive Technology (html)

David L. Edyburn. (2010) ISTE CommunityNING discussion: Response to Intervention (RTI), Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and Assistive Technology (AT): How to Connect the Dots
From  Special Educational Technology Practice:
Three tier RTI model
Quotes from Dave Edyburn:
"My concern is that the AT field is not really at the table in these discussions. And, as we use RTI to collect more data-based evidence about student performance, neither AT or UDL is prepared to contribute to the discussion. I think this puts special education technology professionals at the margins.. Descriptions of RTI typically make little mention of technology. Unfortunately, this communicates a message that technology is not a core tool to be used when designing interventions within each tier.. Advocates of RTI typically have little experience with technology. As a result, technology is not routinely consider to be an essential tool when designing solutions for struggling students. Therefore, technology advocates will need to be much more aggressive to ensure that technology tools continue to be considered as part of the solution set for struggling students. Technology developers will need to become much more committed to creating products that collect data on student performance and generate reports that clearly communicate student progress."

David Edyburn's References:

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Doolittle, J. (2007). Responsiveness to intervention: 1997 to 2007. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 8-12.
Edyburn, D.L. (2007). Technology enhanced reading performance: Defining a research agenda. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(1), 146-152.
Edyburn, D.L. (2006a). Cognitive prostheses for students with mild disabilities: Is this what assistive technology looks like? Journal of Special Education Technology, 21(4), 62-65.
Edyburn, D.L. (2006b). Re-examining the role of assistive technology in learning.Closing the Gap, 25(5), 10-11, 26.
Edyburn, D.L. (2006c). Failure is not an option: Collecting, reviewing, and acting on evidence for using technology to enhance academic performance. Learning and Leading With Technology, 34(1), 20-23.
Hoover, J.J., & Patton, J.R. (2008). The role of special educator in a multitiered instructional system. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(4), 195-202.

TPACK: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge 

Information from the wiki:

"Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge(TPACK), builds on Shulman’s idea of PCK, and attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge. At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). See Figure."

Key Papers about TPACK:
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record. 108(6), 1017-1054.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing Technological Pedagogical Knowledge. In AACTE (Eds.). The Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Educators. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group for the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education.  for a copy:

Punya Mishra's Website

Developing a Game-based Learning Environment in Classrooms: A Conceptual Model Wen-Hsiung Wu, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Science, Taiwan; Wei-Fan Chen, The Pennsylvania State University, USA

“Bit by Bit Putting it All Together” How a Holistic View of Assessment Changed Our Perception of the TPACK Framework Colleen Sexton, Governors State University, USA; Michael Gordon, Governors State University, USA; Kathleen Hickey, Governors State University, USA

Testing a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Assessment Rubric Judi Harris, College of William and Mary, USA; Neal Grandgenett, University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA; Mark Hofer, College of William and Mary, USA

Figg, C. & McCartney, R. (2010). Impacting academic achievement with student learners teaching digital storytelling to others: The ATTTCSE digital video project. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 10(1).

Archambault, L, and Crippen, K. (2009) Examining TPACK Among K-12 Online Distance Educators in the United States CITE: Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.

Schmidt, D.A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D, Koehler, M.J., Mishra, P, and Shin, T. Survey of Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology. (March 3, 2009).

So, H.-J. & Kim, B. (2009). Learning about problem based learning: Student teachers integrating technology, pedagogy and content knowledge. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(1), 101-116. Available online at

TPACK as Shared, Distributed Knowledge Hæge NoreAkershus University College, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Teacher Education, Norway; Kirsti L. Engelien, University of Oslo, Department of Teacher Education and School Development, Norway; Monica Johannesen, Oslo University College, Faculty of Education and International Studies, Norway

From the TPACK WIKI:

"The Learning By Design approach is used to help teachers develop a flexible and situated understanding of technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2005). In this approach, inservice teachers work collaboratively in small groups to develop technological solutions to authentic pedagogical problems. In order to go beyond the simple “skills instruction” view offered by the traditional workshop approach, we have argued that it is necessary to teach technology in contexts that honor the rich connections between technology, the subject matter Content (content), and the means of teaching it (the pedagogy).
This approach has been influenced by a number of theoretical traditions, including: socialconstructivism (Cole, 1997; Vygotsky, 1978); constructionism (Harel, 1991; Harel &Papert, 1991); and personally motivated and meaningful design projects for students (Blumenfeld et. al, 1991; Carver, Lehrer, Connell, & Erickson, 1992; Harel & Papert, 1990, Kafai, 1995; Kafai & Resnick, 1996; Kolodner, 2002; Lehrer, 1993).
In practice, this approach has been used by Mishra & Koehler over semester long projects, such as the design of online-courses, the design of educational films, or the re-design of existing web-sites. This approach, and the subsequent study of teachers who participate in the environmnent, has been instrumental in the theoretical building of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK)Framework."


Larry Cuban on School Reform and Classroom Practice (Blog)
A "Naked Truth" about Technologies in Schools

Dr. Edyburn's 2007 Map of the Special Education Technology Literature

Topics:  Trends and Issues, Assistive Technology, Professional Development, Instructional Design, Access for Diverse Populations, Technology and Instruction, Access for Diverse Populations, Historical/Policy/Legal

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